Английский – написание эссе
ПРОТЕСТИРУЙТЕ ВАШИ ЗНАНИЯ!
Многие студенты не знают или забывают, что оценка за письменную работу на международных экзаменах по английскому языку состоит из 4х слагаемых.
Кроме баллов за уровень знания английского языка (лексика и грамматика), выставляются отдельные оценки за структуру эссе-
- наличие ответа на вопрос
- организацию письменной работы
- логику и ясность аргументации в поддержку высказанного мнения
Прочитайте 3 сочинения- эссе (укороченные варианты), написанные студентами на курсах подготовки к тестированию TOEFL, IELTS и FCE. Все работы содержат типичные ошибки, свойственные сочинениям студентов, у которых не было большого опыта тренировочных занятий по подготовке к письменной части экзаменов.
Проверьте свои знания! В каждом эссе найдите 5 ошибок в структуре сочинения и логике рассуждений.
TOEFL (the level of the language – B1/B2)
Do you prefer individual learning or group learning?
Different people have different strengths and weaknesses. Studying individually and in a group are similar, and they have have their own advantages and disadvantages. Depending on personality, some people prefer individual learning, others choose group learning. The latter is more beneficial.
Firstly, if one studies in a group, they can learn from the other students’ knowledge and experience. Students exchange their expertise when they study together. It is common that the knowledge one student from a group possesses another student does not.
Secondly, studying in a group teaches students to work in a team. Doing a project together provides people with the knowledge and experience of collaborating and distributing tasks. This team-working is significant both for studies and future jobs.
I have never had any individual classes, but from my point of view they have a lot of advantages too.
To conclude, it depends on personality what manner of studying to choose- in a group or individually. As I mentioned, studying in a group has two main advantages. Also, studying in a group is more fun than studying individually.
IELTS (the level of the language –B2)
In order to reduce air pollution in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more. To what extent do you agree with this statement? Discuss possible ways to encourage the use of public transport.
Today, air pollution in cities has become the most dangerous environmental problem for people’s health. The solution to this problem is considered by many to be the use of public transport instead of private cars. Although many people support this notion it is extremely hard to implement it. Yet, I think that there are some effective methods to make this idea work.
Firstly, city planners should ensure convenient and reliable transportation networks in cities. This will provide comfortable and fast routes for travel ; and under these conditions commuters will enjoy travelling by public transport. Consequently, people will be happy to use private cars less. It is a well known fact that many motorists have never thought of using public transport instead of their private vehicle. They will be skeptical about this exchange in the beginning.
Secondly, the schedule of buses and trains should be based on scientific statistic data about the number of travelers in different times of the day. The more people travel, the more frequently buses and trains should run. This will help to escape overcrowding of public transport in rush hours and bring comfort to passengers equal to travelling by private cars. For example, in some cities it is problematic for people to arrive at work in time , and they spend too much time commuting from work to home.
To conclude, there are some methods to encourage people to use public transport instead of private cars linked to the assurance of the comfort and effectiveness of public transport. In addition, municipal agencies should organize some educational events and campaigns.
FCE (the level of the language –B2)
Do you agree that community service works better than fines?
People who commit petty crimes are often ordered by court to do community service works in substitution for going to a jail , paying fines and some other court orders. Thus, for instance, offenders may be sent cleaning, helping in hospitals or working on construction sites. I wholly agree with the statement that community service works are better -more beneficial for society and for the offender- than financial punishment.
The first reason is that whilst the money which comes from fines needs to be distributed properly and used for the benefit of society, community unpaid work as punishment for wrongdoing is a straightforward and concrete payback to society. In addition, the jobs offenders are ordered to do will often not be done by anybody else. For example, with offenders working in charitable organizations there will be more help brought to more people in need than without offenders doing these jobs.
Furthermore, work for society as correctional education is more beneficial for the offender and society than fines because it is a means of treatment not sanctions. When community service is meted out, it is often tailored to the offender and in this manner it is primarily used to rehabilitate them; reparative motivations become secondary. For example, a person who is guilty of speeding will be ordered to give lectures to young people on the safety on the roads, thus both teaching and learning to follow traffic rules.
However, community service orders do not work well with those who have addictive behaviors. In addition, many government organizations are often not prepared to give work to criminals.
In conclusion, there are different alternative methods of punishment for criminal actions; community service is one of them.
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